Our body is designed so that hormones affect not only, for example, body weight, metabolism and physical condition in general, but and on emotions, physical activity, mood, in particular, and cause depression.
These are one of those examples when it is not a separate, independent disease, but a manifestation of another disorder in the clinical picture.
Naturally, in this case, the prognosis of the disease will depend on the correct diagnosis and timely treatment of the somatic disease.
One of the phenomena that cause depression is thyroid disease, accompanied by increased ( hyper -), or, conversely, decreased (hypothyroidism) hormone production.
Disorders of the thyroid gland are more common in women. Depression can occur with both an excess and a lack of thyroid hormones. But still , statistics show that hypothyroidism causes it much more often.
What are hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism?
Hypothyroidism ( thyroid insufficiency) is a syndrome caused by a persistent decrease in the level of production (or action on tissues) of thyroid hormones in the body, often with an increase in the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). It develops at any age, but is statistically more common in women 45-50 years old. Often, the onset of hypothyroidism coincides with the onset of menopause. In this state, lethargy, a feeling of fatigue, memory deteriorates, at the somatic level – an increase in body weight, decreased function of sweat glands, dryness and pallor of the skin, hair, brittle nails, the patient feels chills, freezes even at normal air temperature. Often there is hoarseness of the voice with excitement, as the vocal cords, mucous membranes of the nasal cavity swell; limbs are prone to edema, there may be swelling around the eyes, a violation of taste and smell.
Hyperthyroidism is a syndrome in which the body produces more than needed amount of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). At the same time, the thyroid gland itself can increase in size, a person becomes nervous, irritable, begins to react more sensitively and negatively to heat, sweating, palpitations appear, appetite increases, and body weight decreases. In women, menstrual irregularities can be observed, sleep is disturbed, and tremors appear.
Treatment of depression with hypo – and hyperthyroidism
Treatment of hypo – and hyperthyroidism is to restore hormonal levels. And, if in the first case, it is sufficient to compensate for the lack of a hormone with the help of pharmacological drugs, then hyperthyroidism requires suppression of the excessive activity of the thyroid gland, which is often achieved either by its complete surgical removal or by part.
Treatment of depression in hyper – and hypothyroidism without restoring hormonal balance is usually not effective enough. Thus, it is noted that patients with thyroid diseases give a poorer response to antidepressants, which is natural, since the cause of depression has not been eliminated here . Therefore, effective therapy requires an integrated approach.