Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease common among adults, the first signs and symptoms of which can occur in adults, in adolescence, if there are causes, and treatment helps to slow the progression of the syndrome, but not get rid of it.
Parkinson’s syndrome develops as a result of degenerative changes in the substantia nigra of the brain. Due to the fact that dopamine-producing neurons begin to die.
The debut of Parkinson’s disease usually occurs after 50 years, although in recent decades it is not uncommon for the first symptoms to be observed in young (from 16 years old) people. This is due to environmental degradation, genetic congenital problems and an unhealthy lifestyle.
It is quite difficult to tell everything about Parkinson’s disease, symptoms and treatment in simple words, but the causes of the onset and development of parkinsonism are sufficiently clear to doctors.
Parkinson’s disease or shaking paralysis (why it is called so is clear from the main manifestations even at the initial stage) is one of the most common degenerative brain diseases that affects thousands of people every year.
But you can live with such a pathology for decades.
Scientists are still not able to determine exactly what exactly provokes the development of the disease. However, the factors accelerating degradation are well established:
- the gradual aging of the body, in which the number of neurons that produce dopamine naturally decreases;
- genetic predisposition, inherited;
- living in areas with a polluted atmosphere, it is especially dangerous to live near large industries, highways, railways;
- massive or chronic poisoning with certain chemical compounds;
- permanent deficiency of vitamin D – depletion of its reserves in the body can cause Parkinson’s disease even at an early age, which is characterized by slow development;
- brain injury, tumors;
- neuroinfections , tick-borne encephalitis is especially dangerous.
Also, the progression of pathology is affected by the use of certain medications, narcotic substances.
Scientists believe that the signal for the development of the disease is the impact of several adverse factors at the same time.
Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease
The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease are quite diverse, sometimes it is difficult to understand when it starts, how exactly this disease manifests itself for the first time. But the occurrence of one or more of them, even at a young age, is a signal for concern.
The main signs are associated with loss of control over movements:
- stiffness, muscle rigidity;
- tremor that manifests itself during movement, at rest;
- decreased ability to maintain balance;
- decrease in speed, range of motion.
The disease can be determined not only by the symptoms associated with impaired mobility of the body, but also by other characteristic signs:
- pathological fatigue;
- metabolic disorders, problems with the gastrointestinal tract;
- increased sweating;
- decreased sharpness of smell;
- increased salivation;
- development of mental deviations, disorders;
- decrease in the level of mental activity;
- violation of cognitive functions – thinking slows down, memory is greatly weakened, it becomes difficult to navigate in space.
If suspicious symptoms are detected, a full diagnosis must be made. Necessarily, taking into account the characteristics of the organism of an individual patient.
This is the only way to establish the root cause and choose a treatment that is suitable for a particular patient, based on the characteristics of his body.
Classification and stages of development
There are several developed scales for determining the stage of development of parkinsonism. Demanded, which neurologists rely on, and are also used as a scale when passing the ITU for disability assignment, were developed by English doctors Margaret Hehn and Melvin Yar.
Stages are distinguished depending on the strength of the manifestation of symptoms:
- 0 (zero). There are no external signs.
- 1 (first) – characterized by slight twitches of one hand. Gradually, the tremor will spread further. Increased fatigue, sleep disorders, sudden mood swings, decreased sense of smell.
- 2 (sometimes it is called not the second, but one and a half or intermediate). Tremor is concentrated in one limb, disappears only during sleep. Handwriting deteriorates, with activities that require fine motor skills, the patient copes worse. There are restrictions in the swinging movements of the hands, stiffness in the neck.
- 3 (third). There is a limitation of mobility. The gait is replaced by a “doll”: the steps are short, the feet are set in parallel. The person moves in a hunched state, leaning slightly forward. Speech is disturbed, obsession with certain words appears. It becomes more difficult to take care of yourself.
- 4 (fourth). Increased postural instability. A patient with Parkinson’s balance is unsatisfactory. May fall when trying to get up from a chair or bed. Movements are constrained. Speech worsens, it becomes quiet, unintelligible, the voice changes. Depression develops.
- 5 (fifth), last stage. It is characterized by a sharp deterioration in the condition. The patient cannot move independently, swallowing function is lost, incontinence appears. Speech is usually lost. The person needs constant supervision. dementia develops.
Often, against the background of Parkinson’s disease, people have different consequences, complications.
Diagnosis and treatment
From what Parkinson’s disease is expressed, what signs and how quickly they develop, the diagnosis depends and the selection of therapy that supports and restrains the development of the disease.
The examination must be carried out comprehensively in order to establish all the factors affecting the patient’s condition, to determine the characteristics of the body, psychology. Only in this case, the doctor will be able to develop a comprehensive treatment designed to stop the development of the syndrome.
For the treatment of parkinsonism, complex treatment is used:
- TMS ( transcranial magnetic stimulation);
- method of vortex fields;
- bioresonance therapy;
- EHF (extremely high frequencies);
- physiotherapy exercises (exercise therapy) according to a program compiled by a doctor with a trainer;
- regular work with a psychologist;
- drugs that stimulate the production of dopamine;
- mobile lifestyle.
Timely identified at the initial stage, according to the first symptoms and signs of the disease .