Depression is a multifactorial condition that includes genetic, biochemical, psychological, hormonal, and social components. In dependence on the prevalence of one of the factors secrete endogenous, psychogenic, organic, somatogenic depression. There are also characteristic features that are expressed in hypothymic, dysthymic mood, its instability or a change of high and low mood.
Depression is one of the most common diseases. Every year one in fourteen people in the world is depressed, and one in five people suffers a depressive episode once in their life . About half of depressed patients (from 35 to 50%) do not seek medical help, because do not consider themselves sick. Only 6% of women and 3% of men with depression are treated in a psychiatric hospital. And of those who need treatment, only 10% receive adequate treatment. Depressive disorders were more common in patients who consulted neurologists than in those who consulted physicians and cardiologists. In women diagnosed depression in 1.8 times more often than men, depressive spectrum disorders – in 1.5 times more likely. It was also noted that with age, the risk of the incidence of depression increases 1.4 times every 10 years of life.
The incidence of depression is influenced by traumatic factors: illness, loss of a loved one, retirement, divorce, loss of work by a spouse, etc.
The highest incidence of depressive disorders was found in patients with parkinsonism, diabetes mellitus, cancer, coronary heart disease, osteochondrosis, etc.
The relevance of helping patients with depression is due not only to the high prevalence of the disease, but also to the danger of this disease for life. 15% of primary patients with depression commit suicide. About 90% of suicides are committed in a state of depression. Among adolescents and young people under 30 , suicide is one of the leading causes of death.
Women suffer from depression in 2 times more often than men. The high incidence of depression among women is explained by their better detectability, in particular, somatized, masked by depression. In contrast to men, women are less hide their emotional problems by doctors.
Depression in women is also associated with female socio-psychological, family problems: loneliness, infertility, divorce are factors in the development of depression. A particularly important aspect in the development of depression in women is the connection of the emotional state with the neuroendocrine system, which ensures the menstrual-generative function. This connection is clearly visible during critical periods of hormonal changes, during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period.